Results handling

  1. Introduction
  2. Using the cursor
  3. Fetching options
  4. Callback functions

Introduction

As you have already learned, fetching records is done by using the select method. In order to improve performance and to provide developers a greater control over the result set returned by a query, instead of simply returning a list with results, the select method returns a cursor to a result set, represented by an instance of the Opis\Database\ResultSet class. This class contains various methods used in data handling, including the all method that was presented in the previous section.

Using the cursor

Using the all method is perfectly fine when we are dealing with reasonable data sets, but we can quickly run out of memory if we are dealing with large data sets. This is because the all method transfers all the results from the database into PHP’s memory and stores them into an array. One solution to avoid going out of memory when dealing with large data sets is to iterate through the entire result set and process one result at a time.

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email']);
             
while(false !== $user = $result->next())
{
    echo $user->name, $user->email;
}

Fetching options

By default the results of a query are fetched as anonymous objects with property names that correspond to the column names returned in your result set. You can change this behavior by using a set of methods provided by the Opis\Database\ResultSet class.

Fetching records as an array indexed by column name is done using the fetchAssoc method.

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email'])
             ->fetchAssoc()
             ->all();
             
foreach($result as $user)
{
    echo $user['name'], $user['email'];
}

Fetching records as an array indexed by column number, starting at column 0, is done using the fetchNum method.

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email'])
             ->fetchNum()
             ->all();
             
foreach($result as $user)
{
    echo $user[0], $user[1];
}

The fetchBoth method fetch each record as an array indexed by both column name and column number.

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email'])
             ->fetchBoth()
             ->all();
             
foreach($result as $user)
{
    //prints name and email
    echo $user['name'], $user[1];
}

The fetchNamed method is similar to fetchAssoc method, except that if there are multiple columns with the same name, the value referred to by that key will be an array of all the values in the row that had that column name.

You can map the columns of the result set to named properties in a custom class by using the fetchClass method. The method accepts as arguments a class name and optionally an array of arguments that will be passed to the class constructor.

Important! The named properties of your class that will be mapped to column names must have public access.

class User
{
    public $name;
    public $email;
    
    public function test()
    {
        echo $this->name, $this->email;
    }
}

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email'])
             ->fetchClass('User')
             ->all();
             
foreach($result as $user)
{
    $user->test();
}

Callback functions

Opis Database allows you to specify a callback function that can be passed as an argument to the all and the first methods. Records are mapped to the result of calling the callback function using each row’s columns as parameters in the call.

class User
{
    protected $name;
    protected $email;
    
    public function __construct($name, $email)
    {
        $this->name = $name;
        $this->email = $email;
    }
    
    public function getName()
    {
        return $this->name;
    }
    
    public function getEmail()
    {
        return $this->email;
    }
    
    public function sendEmail($subject, $message)
    {
        mail($this->email, $subject, $message);
    }
    
}

$result = $db->from('users')
             ->select(['name', 'email'])
             ->all(function($name, $email){
                return new User($name, $email);
             });

$message = "Opis Database is great! http://www.opis.io/database";
             
foreach($result as $user)
{
    $subject = "Hello " . $user->getName();
    $user->sendEmail($subject, $message);
}